If a wine is labeled “organic,” it indicates that at least 95 percent of the ingredients are certified organic. If a wine is labeled “100% organic,” all ingredients are certified organic. Both types will bear the USDA organic seal, and both are processed without synthetic agents and contain no added sulfites.
This label stands for a holistic farming approach that views farms and vineyards as interdependent, self-sustaining ecosystems and the soil as a living organism; for instance, crops are often planted and harvested according to lunar cycles. Through this interdependency, the farm becomes self-contained, creating wine with no foreign chemicals or artificial additives. Certified biodynamic wines will carry the Demeter USA logo on the bottle.
This is a catch-all term that describes wine made with as little human, chemical, or technological intervention as possible. No formal certification exists, but natural wine proponents maintain that grapes must be hand-harvested and organically grown.
Illustration by Scotty Reifsnyder